Submission Guidelines/ Authors Guidelines
Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Arial font, font size 12 and double line spacing).
Submit manuscripts as e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: email@example.com. An acknowledgement mail bearing the manuscript number would be sent to the corresponding author within 48 hours of receipt.
The cover letter should include the corresponding author's full names, academic title, school address and telephone/fax numbers and should be in an e-mail message sent to the Editor, with the file, whose name should begin with the corresponding author's surname, as an attachment.
Five types of manuscripts may be submitted:
Regular (Research) articles: These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. A regular article must contain Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion sections. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.
Review Articles: A review article is expected to provide a summary and/or a synthesis of the findings of selected research contributions being published by other authors. The main purpose of a review article is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on a given topic and to initiate a discussion about the research methodologies and the findings related to the said topic. Therefore, a review article should contain a comprehensive list of supporting references being thoroughly cited in the text. The structure of a review article may differ from the structure of a regular paper due to the optional omission of some basic sections such as: Introduction, Analytic Model, Materials and Methods, Results, and/or Discussion. Sometimes it is difficult to classify a paper submission as a review article. Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than 4-6 printed pages (about 12 to 18 manuscript pages). Reviews are also peer-reviewed.
Short Communications: A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, gene isolation and identification, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results. Only if these results are of exceptional interest and are particularly topical and relevant will be considered for publication. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 6 to 12 manuscript pages) in length. Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results. Only if these results are of exceptional interest and are particularly topical and relevant will be considered for publication.
Essays: This category is for special items that are neither original research or review articles. This category includes commentaries, case studies, case report, opinions, literature reviews, historical reviews, and the like. Essays are commissioned, non-exhaustive review-type peer-reviewed articles that are aimed at students and non-specialist readers with the aim of informing and inspiring those with a limited background in a subject/topic. Essays can also be a venue for new and challenging ideas and are often more opinionated than Research and Review articles. Essays are between 1500 and 4500 words long with no more than 50 references. Essays are also to be peer reviewed.
Editorials: Letters from any of the editors are published monthly on matters of topical interest. Editorials are not to be peer reviewed.
All portions of the manuscript must be typed double-spaced and all pages numbered starting from the title page.
The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include full names of all the authors' and affiliations (institutional addresses), the name of the corresponding author should be asterisk (*) and the corresponding author’s phone, fax and E-mail information should be provided. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote.
The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be100 to 250 words in length. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited. It should be in the format:
Keywords: A minimum of five (5) keywords that will provide indexing to the references should be stated.
A list of non-standard Abbreviations should be added and clearly written at the last page of the manuscript. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined.
INTRODUCTION should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.
RESULTS should be presented with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.
DISCUSSION should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this study and compare to past studies on this topic. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.
Conclusion State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.
Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word and the exact positions of each table should be cited in the body of the article (table 1).
Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.
References: In-text citations should follow the APA format and it is advice that references should not be more than ten (10) years old. Ensure that the author's last name and the year of publication in bracket are used in the in-text citation. See example; Kogosi (2011) defined antigens as..... When the authors are two (2), the reference should be cited as Kogosi and Julius (2011) defined antigens as..... If the authors are more than two (2), then the name of the first author and et al. should be used. E.g Kogosi et al. (2011) have reported the presence of H.pylori antigens in the glomerulu of membranous patients. Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references. E.g Smith (1997) compared reaction times. Smith also found that... The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. If it will not cause confusion for the reader, names may be abbreviated thereafter: First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)
Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999). To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation at the appropriate point in the text: (Nwenne & Onyia, 2012, p. 10); (Wilmarth, 1981, Chapter 3). When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author's name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list. E.g Smith argued that...(as cited in Andrews, 2011).
Cited references should be listed under the heading REFERENCES in their alphabetical order. For further guidance.